Intergovernmental cooperation in the Brazilian federation and public policies

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CEPAL - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

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Application deadline 5 months ago: Thursday 25 Aug 2022 at 23:59 UTC

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Result of Service The expectation is that the results of the studies can contribute to increasing the institutional capacity for the inclusion of sustainability criteria in public policies and in actions to encourage innovation for the incorporation of new technologies in agricultural production in Brazil.

Work Location Brasília

Expected duration 230 Days

Duties and Responsibilities To avoid the increase in illegal deforestation of woodlands and forests, horizontal growth of agriculture in Brazil is no longer possible. For this reason, to meet this demand, the increase in agricultural production occurs through the intensification of production systems and not by increasing the area used for growing crops and raising animals. On the one hand, the estimated population and income growth for the coming years will demand greater production of food, fiber, and biofuels. On the other hand, the increase in the price of land, the scarcity of rural labor and the need to preserve natural areas, soils and water limit the expansion of the agricultural frontier in Brazil. It is necessary to produce more in each rural hectare of the country, and this production must be sustainable. The recent modernization of Brazilian agriculture is already a successful experience in the intensification of agricultural production. The main indicator is the productivity. Nowadays, three times more grain is produced per hectare than was produced in 1975. In the face of growing environmental concerns, society has demanded from scientists, as well as from both the productive and public sectors, the development of more systemic, resilient, sustainable production systems, thar have low emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). This perspective consolidates the trend towards intensification and sustainability of agricultural production. Brazil is consigner to several international agreements and is committed to sustainability agendas. In 2015, at the United Nations Conference on Climate Change (COP 21), Brazil committed to reducing GHG emissions by 2030. The established goal was to reduce deforestation rates in the Amazon and “Cerrado” (the Brazilian savanna). The proposed actions embrace reforestation along with the renewable energy component as part of the composition of the Brazilian energy matrix. Another important commitment is with the Sustainable Development Goals, a broad global agenda with 17 integrated goals that blend the three dimensions of sustainability: economic, social, and environmental. In Brazil, the importance of agriculture in achieving these objectives is substantial, considering the extension of the agricultural area, the number of producers and workers involved and the relevance of the sector for economic development and the improvement of the social well-being of the population. For Brazilian agricultural research, the scenario is one of opportunities and challenges. The field demands innovations to increase the efficiency of production systems and the Brazilian government depends on sustainability metrics compatible with tropical agriculture to become engaged in international forums. Globally, the agricultural sector is the main user of land and water. The use of land for food production is the human activity that demands extended space. Agriculture is responsible for occupying 12% of the earth's surface while livestock occupies about 26% of the world's total land. Given the limitations on expansion of the agricultural area, conserving the soils already used and enhancing their use is essential. Sustainable agricultural development can be understood as the management and conservation of natural resources and the orientation of technological changes to meet the human needs of the present and future generations. Sustainable agriculture comprises integrated systems of practices that, over time, guarantee environmental quality, preserve natural resources, promote efficient use of resources, and improve the quality of life of producers and society, based on the economic viability of agricultural processes. Brazil already has a series of widely adopted sustainable systems and technologies, among which it is worth mentioning: (i) Crop-livestock-forest integration (ILPF), a production strategy that integrates different production, agricultural, livestock and forestry systems within from the same area. It generates environmental and economic benefits. It favors the recovery of degraded pastures, the intensification and diversification of production. (ii) Agroforestry Systems: They incorporate considerable plant diversity with agricultural, fruit and forest species and occupy thousands of hectares in all Brazilian biomes. New market niches are enhancing even more the biodiversity of native species, so that agroforestry systems should have increased relevance in the process of sustainable intensification of Brazilian agriculture in the coming decades. (iii) No-tillage System: conservation system present in large Brazilian agricultural area. It provides for the accumulation of carbon in the soil, promoting biological improvements in the soil and decreasing the process of erosion and silting of water resources. (iv) Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF): process that converts nitrogen from the air into forms that can be used by plants. Main source of nitrogen in Brazilian agriculture, FBN has improved soil properties, resulting in higher productivity, lower environmental impact, and greater savings. There is a tendency to intensify the use of FBN for the recovery of degraded areas, reduction of GHG emissions, and reduction of contamination risks. (v) Integrated management and biological control of pests and diseases: These are rational control methods to reduce environmental impacts and minimize current levels of pesticide use and residues in food. It aims to improve the quality of life of rural producers and consumers. This set of innovative practices and processes will have increasing relevance in the transition from current production systems to more sustainable agriculture in Brazil. (vi) Forest plantations: Forest plantations with native and exotic species in Brazil contribute with a portion of the wood used in the country and in the world, and silviculture tends to reduce the pressure for deforestation of native areas. Studies about these technologies are fundamental to assess the sustainability of Brazilian agriculture. Especially because the improvement of existing technologies and the generation of innovations in sustainable systems are essential for the intensification and sustainability of agricultural production systems in Brazil. The general objective of this study is to produce results that can increase the institutional capacity for the inclusion of sustainability criteria in public policies and in actions to encourage innovation for the incorporation of new technologies in agricultural production in Brazil. The specific objectives are: a) To carry out a study on technological development and innovations for sustainable production. b) To conduct a study on the inclusion of sustainability criteria in public policies and incentives for innovation and adoption of new technologies in production.

Qualifications/special skills Academic Qualifications: - doctorate in Economy; Engineering or Planning or related areas.. Experience: - minimum of 3 years in research and teaching in agriculture, rural development, family farming, agricultural production chains, technological innovation in agriculture and/or related areas. - publication related to the consultancy topic. Language: Fluency in Portuguese Desirable – Intermediate English

Additional Information Outputs/ Works Assignment: Product 1 – Study on technological development and innovations for sustainable agricultural production in Brazil. To be submitted 180 days after start date. Product 2 - Study on the inclusion of sustainability criteria in public policies and incentives for innovation and adoption of new technologies in agricultural production in Brazil . To be submitted 230 days after start


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